NbZ =  41

From the Greek "Niobe", meaning "snowy"
(AM) Atomic Mass 92.90638  amu    Oxidation States +3, +5
   (BP) Boiling Point 4742  °C    (MP) Melting Point 2468  °C
   (ρ) Density 8.66  g/cm3    Crystal Structure Body Centered Cubic
   ( χ ) Electronegativity 1.6    (AR) Atomic Radius 1.37  Å
   Physical State Solid (C) Heat Capacity 0.265  J/g °C
Electronic-Config [Kr]  4d4  5s1     (I1) First Ionization E 663.82  kJ/mol
   (ΔHvap) Heat of Vaporization 689.9  kJ/mol     (ΔHfus) Heat of Fusion 30  kJ/mol
   Year of Discovery 1801    Location of Discovery England
(E°) Standard Potential Nb3+⇔ Nb (-1.099 V)
Stable isotopes  93Nb
Discovered/Synthesized by Charles Hatchett
Natural Source The mineral/ore pyrochlore
Common Uses Chemical pipelines, superconductors, magnetic levitation trains, MRI magnets
Other Info Named after the Greek goddess Niobe
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