GdZ =  64

Named after chemist  "Johan Gadolin"
(AM) Atomic Mass 157.25  amu    Oxidation States +3
   (BP) Boiling Point 3233  °C    (MP) Melting Point 1311  °C
   (ρ) Density 7.89  g/cm3    Crystal Structure Hexagonal
   ( χ ) Electronegativity 1.1    (AR) Atomic Radius 1.61  Å
   Physical State Solid (C) Heat Capacity 0.236  J/g °C
Electronic-Config [Xe]  4f7 5d1 6s2     (I1) First Ionization E 593.38  kJ/mol
   (ΔHvap) Heat of Vaporization 301.3  kJ/mol     (ΔHfus) Heat of Fusion 10.05  kJ/mol
   Year of Discovery 1880    Location of Discovery Switzerland
(E°) Standard Potential Gd3+⇔ Gd (-2.279 V)
Stable isotopes   154Gd  155Gd  156Gd  157Gd  158Gd  160Gd
Discovered/Synthesized by Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac
Natural Source The mineral/ore bastnasite, monazite, loparite
Common Uses Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast enhancer, phosphors, neutron radiography
Other Info Bright, soft, silvery-white metal that is both ductile and malleable.
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