HfZ =  72

From the Latin "Hafnia", meaning "Copenhagen"
(AM) Atomic Mass 178.49  amu    Oxidation States +4
   (BP) Boiling Point 4602  °C    (MP) Melting Point 2227  °C
   (ρ) Density 13.1  g/cm3    Crystal Structure Hexagonal
   ( χ ) Electronegativity 1.3    (AR) Atomic Radius 1.5  Å
   Physical State Solid (C) Heat Capacity 0.144  J/g °C
Electronic-Config [Xe]  4f14  5d2  6s2     (I1) First Ionization E 641.63  kJ/mol
   (ΔHvap) Heat of Vaporization 571  kJ/mol     (ΔHfus) Heat of Fusion 27.2  kJ/mol
   Year of Discovery 1923    Location of Discovery Denmark
(E°) Standard Potential HfO(OH)2 + H2O⇔ Hf + 4 OH- (-2.500 V)
Stable isotopes  176Hf,  177Hf,  178Hf,  179Hf,  180Hf
Discovered/Synthesized by Dirk Coster, Charles de Hevesy
Natural Source The mineral/ore zircon
Common Uses Nuclear reactor control rods in submarines, plasma torch electrodes
Other Info High-performance electrical insulator
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