NdZ =  60

From the Greek "neos didymos", meaning "new twin"
(AM) Atomic Mass 144.24  amu    Oxidation States +3
   (BP) Boiling Point 3127  °C    (MP) Melting Point 1010  °C
   (ρ) Density 7  g/cm3    Crystal Structure Hexagonal
   ( χ ) Electronegativity 1.2    (AR) Atomic Radius 1.64  Å
   Physical State Solid (C) Heat Capacity 0.19  J/g °C
Electronic-Config [Xe]  4f4  6s2     (I1) First Ionization E 533.56  kJ/mol
   (ΔHvap) Heat of Vaporization 289  kJ/mol     (ΔHfus) Heat of Fusion 7.14  kJ/mol
   Year of Discovery 1885    Location of Discovery Austria
(E°) Standard Potential Nd2+⇔ Nd (-2.100 V),   Nd3+⇔ Nd (-2.323 V)
Stable isotopes  142Nd,  143Nd,  145Nd,  146Nd,  148Nd
Discovered/Synthesized by Carl F. Auer von Welsbach
Natural Source The mineral/ore bastnasite, monazite, loparite
Common Uses Strong magnets, electric motors, speakers and headphones, lasers, lighter flints
Other Info Strongest permanent magnets Used in microphones and PC Hard Drives
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